Educational /Awareness article

D2 is a refinery abbreviation for Gasoil. It is the second distillate from the crude, and can be used without reformers and additives, can also burst, and the wax makes the diesel flow thicker. The principal differentiators in GASOIL or D2 are the content of sulfur. The GOST variant for D2/Gasoil is GOST 305-82 and specifies now a sulphur content of 0.02 MAX which is according to the ISO standard. However, the ANSI standard will call this “Ultra Low Sulphur”, and retain 0,2% (2000ppm) as the “Low sulphur. The reduction of sulphur in the Gasoil used for heating has contributed to less pollution in many cities.


The viscosity requirement of diesel fuel is usually specified at 40 °C. A disadvantage of diesel as a vehicle fuel in cold climates, is that its viscosity increases as the temperature decreases, changing it into a ge that cannot flow in fuel systems. Special low-temperature diesel contains additives to keep it liquid at lower temperatures, but starting a diesel engine in very cold weather may still pose considerable difficulties.
Another disadvantage of diesel engines compared to petrol/gasoline engines is the possibility of runaway failure. Since diesel engines do not need spark ignition, they can run as long as diesel fuel is supplied. Fuel is typically supplied via a fuel pump. If the pump breaks down in an “open” position, the supply of fuel will be unrestricted, and the engine will run away and risk terminal failure.
With turbocharged engines, the oil seals on the turbocharger may fail, allowing lubricating oil into the combustion chamber, where it is burned like regular diesel fuel. In vehicles or installations that use diesel engines and also bottled gas, a gas leak into the engine room could also provide fuel for a runaway, via the engine air intake.

Top uses of D2

Methanol is a common laboratory solvent and is also used;

• Railroad
• Military vehicles
• Cars
• Engines and power plants
• Poor quality diesel fuel has been used as an extraction agent for liquid–liquid extraction of palladium from nitric acid mixtures. Such use has been proposed as a means of separating the fission product palladium from PUREX raffinate which comes from used nuclear fuel. In this system of solvent extraction, the hydrocarbons of the diesel act as the diluent while the dialkyl sulfides act as the extractant. This extraction operates by a solvation mechanism. So far, neither a pilot plant nor full scale plant has been constructed to recover palladium, rhodium or ruthenium from nuclear wastes created by the use of nuclear fuel.
• Diesel fuel is also often used as the main ingredient in oil-base mud drilling fluid. The advantage of using diesel is its low cost and that it delivers excellent results when drilling a wide variety of difficult strata including shale, salt and gypsum formations. Diesel-oil mud is typically mixed with up to 40% brine water. Due to health, safety and environmental concerns, Diesel-oil mud is often replaced with vegetable, mineral, or synthetic food-grade oil-base drilling fluids, although diesel-oil mud is still in widespread use in certain regions.
• During development of Rocket engines in Germany during World War II J-2 Diesel fuel was used as the fuel component in several engines including the BMW 109-718. J-2 diesel fuel was also used as a fuel for gas turbine engines.



Specification

The less Sulphur, the better, 0.05% is the super quality for vehicles, etc., while other qualities are for generators, power plants, etc.